“Hilm [Forbearance]: The abandonment of haste.
Ar-Raghib said, ‘it is the ability to control the soul and temperament at the onrush of anger.’ al-Jahiz said, it is the abandonment of taking revenge in the state of extreme anger, despite the ability to do so.’ al-Jurani said, ‘it is to be clam in the state of anger.’
Ibn Hibban said, ‘it is to prevent the soul, at the onset of something that it dislikes, from falling into that which is prohibited. It is made up of cognisance (ma’rifah), patience (sabr), deliberation (anah), and examination and circumspection (tathabbut). …Were hilm to have no praiseworthy trait except preventing one from falling into sin and entering into despicable situations, this would be sufficient in making it obligatory upon the intelligent to adhere to whenever he finds the opportunity…It is obligatory upon the intelligent when he becomes angry and exasperated to bring to mind the hilm that Allah displays to him despite his frequently transgressing the bounds and falling into sin, this should then direct him to showing hilm and prevent his anger from leading to sin…were hilm to have parents, one of them would be intelligence and the other silence.’
Al-Mawardi said, ‘hilm is from the most noble of qualities and the most deserving of being possessed by the intelligent, the perspicuous. It serves to preserve ones honour, keep one free from trouble and worry, and attract respect and praise.’”